Apply

Detection and Diagnosis of ASD in Females

LinkedInFacebookTwitterPrintFriendlyShare
Citation

Eckerd, M. (2020). Detection and Diagnosis of ASD in Females. Journal of Health Service Psychology46(1), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42843-020-00006-1

Abstract

Autism in females is often unrecognized and undiagnosed. This article describes the presentation of autistic traits of females and how they differ from those of males with autism. Screening tools for assessing autism in children, adolescents, and adults are identified and described. The process of clinical assessment of females for possible autism are described, including the disclosure of potential diagnoses to the patient.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Austin, R. & Pisano, G. (2017) Neurodiversity as a Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Review. May–June Issue.

Baio, J., Wiggins, L, Christensen, D., Maenner, M., Daniels, J., Warren, Z., Karzius-Spencer, M., Zahorodny, W, Rosenberg, C., White, T., Durkin, M., Imm, P., Nikolaou, L., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Lee, L., Harrington, R., Lopez, M., Fitzgerald, R., Hewitt, A., Pettygrove, S., Constantino, J., Vehorn, A., Shenouda, J., Hall-Lande, J., Braun, K., & Dowling, N. (2018). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 67(6) 1

Baker, A.R. (2002). Invisible at The End Of the Spectrum: Shadows, Residues, “BAP” and The Female Aspergers Experience, https://www.avaruthbaker.com/uploads/5/0/0/9/5009416/invisible_at_the_end_of_the_spectrum.pdf

Bargiela., S, Steward, R, & Mandy, W. (2016). The Experiences of Late-diagnosed Women with Autism Spectrum Conditions: An Investigation of the Female Autism Phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3281-3924. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2872-8

Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Robinson, J., &Woodbury-Smith, M. (2005). The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0026-5

Ballan, M. & Freyer, M. (2017). Autism Spectrum Disorder, Adolescence, and Sexuality Education: Suggested Interventions for Mental Health Professionals Sex Disabilities, 35, 261-273

Bauman, M. L. (2010). Medical Comorbidities in Autism: Challenges to Diagnosis and Treatment. Neurotherapeutics, 7, 320–327.

Brown, C., Attwood, T., Garnett, M. & Stokes, M. (2020, under review). Am I Autistic? Utility of the GQ-ASC as an Autism Assessment in Adult Women. Autism in Adulthood.

Cassidy, S., Bradley, L, Shaw, R & Baron-Cohen, S. (2018). Risk Markers for Suicidality in Autistic Adults Molecular Autism, 9:42. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/s13229-018-0226-4

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (updated 2019). What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html

Conner, C., Cramer, R., & McGonigle, J. (2019). Examining the Diagnostic Validity of Autism Measures Among Adults in an Outpatient Clinic Sample. Autism in Adulthood, 1, 1-18.

Dean, M., Harwood, R. & Kasari, C. (2017) The Art of Camouflage: Gender Differences in the Social Behaviors of Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum disorder Autism, 21(6), 678-689.

Eckerd, M. (2019). Disclosure of ASD Diagnosis to Children and Adolescents. Journal of Health Service Psychology, 45, 17–22.

Eckerd, M. (2018). Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder (Level 1) in Adults. Journal of Health Service Psychology, 44, 93–100.

Gaus, V. (2007). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Asperger Syndrome. Guilford Press, New York, NY.

Gerdts, J. & Bernier, R. (2011). The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research and Treatment, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/545901

Geurts, B., Kissine, M. & van Tiel, B. (2019). Pragmatic reasoning in autism. In Kinga Morsanyi & Ruth M.J. Byrne (Eds.), Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making in Autism (Chapter 6). Routledge, Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351060912-6

Halladay, A., Bishop, S., Constantino, J., Daniels, A., Koenig, K., Palmer, K., Messinger, D., Pelphrey, K., Sanders, S, Singer, A., Taylor, J. & Szatmari, P. (2015). Sex and Gender Differences In Autism Spectrum Disorder: Summarizing Evidence Gaps and Identifying Emerging Areas of Priority. Molecular Autism, 6:36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-015-0019-y

Harmsen, I. (2019). Empathy in Autism Spectrum Disorder Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49, 3939-3955.

Jamison, R., Bishop, S., Huerta, M. & Hallady, A. (2017) The Clinician Perspective on Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism, 21(6), 772-784

Kirby, A., Bakian, A, Zhang, Y., Bilder, DA., Keeshin, BR., Coon, H. (2019). A 20-year Study of Suicide Death in a Statewide Autism Population Autism Research, 12 (4), 658-666.

Lee, M., Krishnamurthy, J., Susi, A., Sullivan, C., Gorman, G., Hisle-Gorman, E., Erdie-Lalena, C. & Nylund, C. (2018). Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48,1523-1529.

Lai, M. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Identifying the Lost Generation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2,1013-1027.

Leekam, S., Nieto, C., Libby, S., Wing, L. & Gould, J. (2007). Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 37, 894-910.

Loomes, R., Hull, L. & Mandy, W. (2017). What is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(6), 466-474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.013

Mandy, W., & Lai, M. C. (2017) Towards Sex- And Gender-Informed Autism Research Autism, 21(6), 643-645. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361317706904

Milner, V., McIntosh, H., Colvert, E., & Happe, F. (2019). A Qualitative Exploration of the Female Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49, 2389-2402.

Milton, D. (2012). On the Ontological Status of Autism: The “Double Empathy Problem” Disability and Society, 27(6), 883-887.

Ormond, S., Brownlow, C., Garnett, M.S., Rynkiewicz, A. & Attwood, T. (2018). Profiling Autism Symptomatology: An Exploration of the Q-ASC Parental Report Scale in Capturing Sex Differences in Autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 48, 389-403 doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3324-9

Pesce, N. L. (2019, April 2). Most college grads with autism can’t find jobs. This group is fixing that. MarketWatch. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/most-college-grads-with-autism-cant-find-jobs-this-group-is-fixing-that-2017-04-10-5881421

Ritvo, R., Ritvo, E., Guthrie, D., Ritvo, M., Hufnagel, D., McMahon, W,. Tonge, B., Mataix-Cols, D., Jassi, A., Attwood, T. & Eloff, J. (2011). The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults: An International Validation Study. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 1076-1089.

Werling, D. & Geshwin, D. (2013) Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Current Opinion In Neurology, 26(2),146-153.

Wing, L. & Gould, J. (1979). Severe Impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11-29.

Woodbury-Smith, M., Robinson, J., Wheelwright, S. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005). Screening Adults for Asperger Syndrome Using the AQ: A Preliminary Study of its Diagnostic Validity in Clinical Practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35 (3), 331-335.

World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization Geneva

Thank You to Our Advertisers for This Issue

Earn CE Credit

CE.NationalRegister.org

Learn More

1200 New York Ave NW, Ste 800

Washington DC 20005

p: 202.783.7663

f: 202.347.0550

Endorsed by the National Register